Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
Is Cold Weather a Threat in the Sunshine State?
YES. During the harsh winter of 1989-1990, 26 Floridians died of
hypothermia. Because of normally mild temperatures, Florida homes often lack
adequate heating and insulation and the Florida outdoor lifestyle leads to
danger for those not prepared. In addition to the actual temperature, when
the wind blows, a wind chill (the temperature that it feels like) is
experienced on exposed skin. When freezing temperatures or low wind chills
are expected, the National Weather Service will issue warnings or
While the danger from winter weather varies across the country, nearly all
Americans, regardless of where they live, are likely to face some type of
severe winter weather at some point in their lives. One of the primary concerns is the winter weather's ability to
knock out heat, power and communications services to your home or office,
sometimes for days at a time. The National Weather Service refers to winter
storms as the “Deceptive Killers” because most deaths are indirectly related
to the storm. Instead, people die in traffic accidents on icy roads and of
hypothermia from prolonged exposure to cold. It is important to be prepared
for winter weather before it strikes.
Step 1: Get a Kit
- Get an Emergency Supply Kit which includes items like non-perishable
food, water, a battery-powered or hand-crank radio, extra flashlights and
- Thoroughly check and update your family's Emergency Supply Kit before
Step 2: Make a Plan - Prepare Your Family
- Make a Family Emergency Plan. Your family may not be together when
disaster strikes, so it is important to know how you will contact one
another, how you will get back together and what you will do in case of an
- Plan places where your family will meet, both within and outside
of your immediate neighborhood.
- It may be easier to make a long-distance phone call than to call
across town, so an out-of-town contact may be in a better position to
communicate among separated family members.
- You may also want to inquire about emergency plans at places where your
family spends time: work, daycare and school. If no plans exist, consider
volunteering to help create one.
- Take a
Greater Tampa Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) class. Keep your training current.
Step 3: Be Informed - Prepare Your Home
- Make sure your home is well insulated and that you have weather
stripping around your doors and windowsills to keep the warm air inside.
- Insulate pipes with insulation or newspapers and plastic and allow
faucets to drip a little during cold weather to avoid freezing.
- Learn how to shut off water valves (in case a pipe bursts).
- Keep fire extinguishers on hand, and make sure everyone in your house
knows how to use them. House fires pose an additional risk as more people
turn to alternate heating sources without taking the necessary safety
- Know ahead of time what you should do to help elderly or disabled
friends, neighbors or employees.
- Hire a contractor to check the structural stability of the roof to
sustain unusually heavy weight from the accumulation of snow - or water, if
drains on flat roofs do not work.
- If you have a car, fill the gas tank in case you have to leave. In
addition, check or have a mechanic check the following items on your car:
- Antifreeze levels - ensure they are sufficient to avoid freezing.
- Battery and ignition system - should be in top condition and battery
terminals should be clean.
- Brakes - check for wear and fluid levels.
- Exhaust system - check for leaks and crimped pipes and repair or
replace as necessary. Carbon monoxide is deadly and usually gives no
- Fuel and air filters - replace and keep water out of the system by
using additives and maintaining a full tank of gas.
- Heater and defroster - ensure they work properly.
- Lights and flashing hazard lights - check for serviceability.
- Oil - check for level and weight. Heavier oils congeal more at low
temperatures and do not lubricate as well.
- Thermostat - ensure it works properly.
- Tires - make sure the tires have adequate tread. All-weather radials
are usually adequate for most winter conditions. However, some
jurisdictions require that to drive on their roads, vehicles must be
equipped with chains or snow tires with studs.
- Windshield wiper equipment - repair any problems and maintain proper
washer fluid level.
The Five P's of Cold Weather Preparedness
- Protect People
- Protect Plants
- Protect Pets
- Protect Exposed Pipes
- Practice Fire Safety
Cold Weather Terms
- WIND CHILL is the cooling effect due to the combination of temperature
and wind. It is expressed as the loss of body heat.
- A FREEZE occurs when surface air temperature is below freezing (32F)
over a widespread area for a significant period of time. A Freeze is a term
used for the condition when vegetation is injured by these low air
temperatures, regardless if Frost is deposited.
- FROST is a cover of ice crystals produced by deposition of atmospheric
water directly on a surface at or below freezing.
- FREEZE WARNING is issued by the National Weather Service to make
agricultural interests and the public aware of anticipated freeze conditions
over a large area.
- HARD FREEZE WARNING is issued by the National Weather Service to make
agricultural interests and the public aware of anticipated freeze conditions
that are of four hour duration or greater, below 28F, and over a large
Terms Used to Identify Winter Weather
- FREEZING RAIN creates a coating of ice on roads and walkways.
- SLEET is rain that turns to ice pellets before reaching the ground.
Sleet also causes roads to freeze and become slippery.
- WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY means cold, ice and snow are expected.
- WINTER STORM WATCH means severe weather such as heavy snow or ice is
possible in the next day or two.
- WINTER STORM WARNING means severe winter conditions have begun or will
begin very soon.
When a Winter Storm WATCH is issued
- Listen to NOAA Weather Radio, local radio, and television stations, or
cable television such as The Weather Channel for further updates.
- Be alert to changing weather conditions.
- Avoid unnecessary travel.
When a Winter Storm WARNING is issued
- Stay indoors during the storm and use safe heating sources.
- If you must go outside, several layers of lightweight clothing will keep
you warmer than a single heavy coat. Gloves (or mittens) and a hat will
prevent loss of body heat. Cover your mouth to protect your lungs.
- Walk carefully on snowy, icy, walkways.
- If the pipes freeze, remove any insulation or layers of newspapers and
wrap pipes in rags. Completely open all faucets and pour hot water over the
pipes, starting where they were most exposed to the cold (or where the cold
was most likely to penetrate).
- Indoors, do not use charcoal or other fuel-burning devices, such as
grills that produce carbon monoxide. Install recommended smoke and
carbon monoxide detectors.
- Maintain ventilation when using kerosene heaters to avoid build-up of
toxic fumes. Refuel kerosene heaters outside and keep them at least three
feet from flammable objects.
Avoid traveling by car in a storm, but if you must...
- Carry an Emergency Supply Kit in the trunk.
- Keep your car's gas tank full for emergency use and to keep the fuel
line from freezing.
- Let someone know your destination, your route, and when you expect to
arrive. If your car gets stuck along the way, help can be sent along your
- Eat regularly and drink ample fluids, but avoid caffeine and alcohol.
- Conserve fuel, if necessary, by keeping your residence cooler than
normal. Temporarily close off heat to some rooms.
Listen to Local Officials
Learn about the emergency plans that have been established in your area by
your state and local government. In any emergency, always listen to the
instructions given by local emergency management officials.
For further information on how to plan and prepare for winter storms as well
as what to do during and after a winter storm, visit:
Federal Emergency Management Agency - Winter Weather
Red Cross Winter Storm Safety Checklist, 251 KB
For up-to date weather information visit:
NWS Florida Hazardous Weather Outlooks
National Weather Service Tampa Bay, FL